Minggu, 12 September 2010

know the causes and treatment of schizophrenia

                                                            figure via myhealthguardian

The cause of schizophrenia is unknown, and schizophrenia can not be cured but can be treated. Predictors of good treatment results are normal adjustment before the onset of the disease and no family, schizophrenia, confusion, paranoia, depression or catatonic behavior. Some prognostic factors of poor prognosis are: age of onset, family history of disease, withdrawal, apathy, and a history of thought disorder. There are several theories to explain the development of this disorder. Genetic factors may play a role as close relatives of a person suffering from schizophrenia are more likely to develop the disease. The psychological and social factors, such as disorders of interpersonal relationships and family may also play a role in development.

Hospitalization, psychotherapy and drug treatment:
Psychotherapy can be useful in certain situations. Family therapy is often useful to help families cope with the injured party. Behavioral techniques used in therapy, or at home can help a person learn behaviors that lead to social acceptance.

Hospitalization is often in order to prevent self-injury or injury to others, and to ensure basic human needs like food, rest and hygiene.

The first episode of psychosis. Typical antipsychotic selected on the basis of adverse patient tolerates the best (see examples below). Need 6 to 8 weeks at a therapeutic dose of due process. If no response, consider switching to another class of typical antipsychotics. If both tests are not typical antipsychotics, such as antipsychotics (usually risperidone, olanzapine, and then, and clozapine). Prophylactic treatment is recommended at least 6 months to 1 year. Above is usually done in consultation with a psychiatrist.

Back psychosis. It requires a long-term treatment of antipsychotics. Reducing the dose to prevent long-term antipsychotics (tardive dyskinesia).

supportive counseling, individual psychotherapy or family can be a useful adjunct to reduce the risk of relapse.

Community programs beneficial to provide support, social skills training and vocational rehabilitation.

via psychnet

Know the anatomy and brain function

 picture of Brain Anatomy

The brain is the control center of body functions and allows us to cope with our environment. Words, actions, thoughts and feelings are in the middle of the brain. It is so complex that some theorists believe that there will never be able to fully understand. But we know that each part of the brain specific and important role, function often profoundly important, and each part contributes to the smooth functioning of our body healthy.

brainstem is located in the lower part of the brain and connects the brain to the spinal cord. Brain stem controls many vital functions, including roads motor and sensory function of the heart and respiratory system and reflexes.

Broca's area is located in the opercular and triangular bottom before. Function of this area is to understand the language, speech and neural control for the face.

The cerebellum is located in the lower back and the head is connected to the brain stem. This is the second largest structure in the brain and is composed of two hemispheres. Cerebellum controls complex motor functions like walking, balance, posture, coordination and general.

CSF, also known as PPC is a clear substance that circulates in the brain and spinal cord. It provides nutrients and serves to cushion the brain and, therefore, protect against damage. As the liquid is absorbed, most is produced from the choroid plexus, a structure located in the rooms. brain tumor can cause a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid or blocked.

The brain is the largest part of the brain and is associated with conscious thought, movement and sensation. It consists of two halves, each of which controls the opposite side of the body. Halves are connected by the corpus callosum, which delivers messages between them. Four sheets form in the brain, the frontal, temporal and parietal occipital.

Front is one of the four parts of the hemisphere of the brain. It controls attention, behavior, abstract thinking, problem solving, creative thinking, emotions, intellect, initiative, above, the coordination of movements, muscle movements, smell, physical reactions and personality.

Hypothalamus is the region of the brain in association with the pituitary gland, which controls the hormonal processes of the organization, as well as temperature, mood, hunger and thirst.

Meningitis are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Flowing from this tissue tumor called meningioma.

motor cortex is an area in the middle of the upper part of the brain that helps control movement in various parts of the body.

occipital lobe of the cerebral hemisphere is at the back of the head and vision.

optic chiasm is located in the hypothalamus and the optic nerve which passes on the opposite side of the brain.

parietal lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. Orders tactile sensations in response to internal stimuli, sensory comprehension of language, reading, and certain visual functions.

The pineal gland controls the response to light and darkness. The exact role of the pineal gland is not certain.

The pituitary is a small body size of beans, which is located at the base of the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk. Pituitary secretes several important hormones, growth and sexual maturation.

sensory cortex is located in front of the parietal lobe, or in other words, the central area of the brain. sensory cortex receives information from the spinal cord to touch, pressure, pain, perception of body position and movements.

Time is one of the four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere cerebral hemisphere. Controls the sound and visual memory, language, some hearing and speech, language, and some behaviors.

Hills is located near the center of the brain and control the entry and exit to and from the brain and the sensation of pain and attention.

The four chambers of the brain are linked to defects in the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is produced.

Wernicke's area is part of the temporal lobe surrounding the auditory cortex and is considered essential to understanding and making speeches. Damage to Wernicke's area causes deficits in understanding spoken language.

via massoudbina

Rabu, 08 September 2010

How the CT Scan Tool

                                                          CT Scan. figure via atlantaworkerscompblog

What is a CT of the body?
CT-CAT scans are sometimes called noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat disease.
CT combines special x-ray machines with advanced computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the surface of the test can be tested on a computer screen, printed or transferred to CD.
Traditional knowledge of the internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more detail than ordinary X-ray examinations.
Using specialized equipment and knowledge to create and interpret CT of the body, radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, appendicitis, trauma and disorders of the musculoskeletal system .


What are the most common applications of the procedure?
Traditional knowledge:
  • One of the best and fastest tools of control of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, as it contains a detailed breakdown of all types of fabrics.
  • Often the preferred method for diagnosing many different cancers, including lung, liver and pancreas, because the image allows the physician to confirm the presence of the tumor and measure its size, exact location and size of tumor involvement of other nearby tissues.
  • Research, which plays an important role in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases that can lead to stroke, kidney failure and even death. CT is widely used to evaluate cases of pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung vessels), and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).
  • Useful in diagnosing and treating spinal problems and the hands, feet and other skeletal structures because it can clearly show even very small bones and surrounding tissues such as muscles and blood vessels blood.


In children, CT is rarely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer or pancreatic tumors and aneurysms of the aorta. For children, CT is increasingly used to assess:
  • Lymphoma
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Vascular malformations
  • Kidney



Doctors use CT:
  • Quickly identify injuries to the lungs, heart and blood vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines or other internal organs in case of injury.
  • Guide biopsies and other procedures such as drainage of abscesses and minimally invasive treatment of tumors.
  • Planning and evaluation of results of operations, such as organ transplants or gastric bypass.
  • Planning and radiotherapy properly manage and monitor tumor response to chemotherapy.
  • Measure the bone mineral density to detect osteoporosis.


How do I prepare?

Wear comfortable clothes for the examination. You can have a dress to wear during the procedure.

Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins may affect the CT images and should not be at home or removed before the examination. You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work.

You may be asked not to eat or drink for several hours in advance, especially if a contrast material will be used for the examination. Tell your doctor before taking any medication, or if you have allergies. If you have a known allergy to contrast material or "dye", the doctor may prescribe medication to reduce the risk of allergic reactions.

You should also inform your doctor of any recent illness or other medical conditions, and if you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney or thyroid problems. Each of these conditions can increase the risk of unusual adverse reactions.

Women should always inform your doctor and the CT technician if there is a possibility they are pregnant.


What is the material like?

scanner is usually a large box with a hole like a machine or a small tunnel in the center. You will lie on an examining table that slides into the narrow tunnel. Turning around you, x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in the ring, called the gantry. Computer workstation that processes the information image is in a separate room where the technician operating the scanner and monitoring of research.

Techniques of Physical Examination


                                                           figure via depts.washington

The study is to evaluate the power to determine his state of health. Control techniques include palpation (feeling with hands and / or fingers), percussion (tapping fingers), auscultation (listening), and smell. A complete medical examination also includes gathering information about people, history and lifestyle, laboratory research and disease control. These elements constitute the data upon which to establish a diagnosis and a treatment plan is developed.


Target
Deadline for the annual survey has been replaced in most health care environments of periodic health examinations. The frequency with which it is based on factors such as age, sex, presence of risk factors for disease in the person of the test. Health professionals often use the guidelines that were developed by organizations such as the U.S. Preventive Task Force. Organizations like the American Cancer Society and American Heart Association, which supports detection and prevention of specific diseases, generally recommend testing more intensive and frequent, or to suggest that research into various organs.
Testing complete physical opportunities for health care professionals to obtain basic information on who can be useful in the future. They also allow health care providers to establish relationships before problems. Physical examination is the right time to answer questions and teach good health practices. Identifying and solving problems at an early stage can have beneficial effects of long-term results.
Everyone should have periodic physical examination. This occurs frequently (monthly at first) in infants and gradually reach a frequency of once a year for youth and adults.


Description
The complete study usually begins in the head and proceeds until the fingers. However, the exact mileage will vary depending on individual needs and preferences of the examiner has examined. The test takes on average about 30 minutes. The cost of testing depends on the charge for professional time and all the tests that are included in the price. Most health insurance plans for routine physical tests, including research.


Search
Before you ask the experts observe the person, the general appearance, general health and behavior. Measurements of height and weight are made. life, such as pulse, breathing rate, body temperature and blood pressure are recorded.
The suspect in a sitting position, after verification systems:
  • Skin. The exposed areas of skin are observed; size and shape of any change is noted.
  • Head. Hair, scalp, skull and face are examined.
  • Eyes. The external structures are observed. internal structures can be observed using an ophthalmoscope (instrument lights) in a dark room.
  • Ears. external control structures. otoscope instrument called light can be used for the internal control structure.
  • Nose and sinuses. external nose is examined. nasal mucosa and internal structures can be observed using a nasal speculum and penlight.
  • Mouth and throat. teeth lips, gums, palate, tongue and throat, are inspected.
  • Neck. The lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the thyroid gland is palpable.
  • Return. The spine and back muscles are palpable, and checked for tenderness. Upper back, where are the lungs, is palpable on the left and right and the stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds.
  • Breasts and armpits. women's breasts are inspected with the arms relaxed and grew. The men and women, the lymph nodes in the armpits are felt in the hands of an expert. If the person is still sitting, movement in the joints of the hands, arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, and you can check.



Even if the person is lying on the table test, the test includes:
  • Breathe. The breasts are palpated and control the masses.
  • Front chest and lungs. surface inspection with the fingers, using palpation and percussion. Stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds internal.

The head should be slightly raised to examine:
  • Heart. Stethoscope is used to listen to heart rate and rhythm. The blood vessels of the neck are observed and palpable.

The suspect should be flat on the survey:
  • The abdomen. Light and deep palpation is used on the abdomen to feel the contours of the internal organs, including liver, spleen, kidneys and aorta, large vessels.
  • The rectum and anus. The person lying on the left side, outside areas are observed. The internal digital examination (using a gloved finger), is generally for people over 40 years. Among men, the prostate is palpable.
  • Genital warts. external genitalia are controlled and the region examined hernia. Among men, the scrotum and testes are palpable. In women, an investigation is in the basin through a viewing window and the sample Papanicolaou (Pap) test can be taken.
  • Feet. Laying flat, the legs are inspected for swelling, and pulses in the knees, thighs, feet and surrounded. Aine is the presence of palpable lymph nodes. Joints and muscles are observed.
  • Musculo-skeletal disorders. The position of the person, the straightness of the spine and adjust the legs and feet is noted.
  • The blood vessels. The presence of abnormally dilated veins (varicose), usually in the legs, is noted.

In addition to assessing individual alertness and mental capacity during the initial conversation, the control of the nervous system may include:
  • Neurological screen. The individual's ability to make a few steps, hop, and it is deeply bent knee is observed. Force grip is felt. Sitting in an upright position, the reflexes in the knees and feet can be tested with a small hammer. The sense of touch in hands and feet can be evaluated by testing reaction to pain and vibration.
  • 12-nerves in the head (skull) which are connected directly to the brain. Check the sense of smell and taste, muscle strength in the head, reflexes in the eye, facial movements, gag reflex, vision, hearing, and muscles of the jaw. muscle and overall coordination, and reaction to pain medications, such as pain, temperature and touch can also be evaluated.


Readiness Diagnostic
Each test should be comfortable and treated with respect by the research. As the study continues, the examiners should explain what they do and to share relevant findings. Use language appropriate to improve the efficiency of the suspect promotes better communication and, ultimately, the relationship between the subjects examined and the examiners.

Before coming to health care, registration dates and important facts about their medical history, and family members. There should be a complete list of all medications and their doses. This list should include counter preparations, vitamins and herbal supplements. Some people their medication bottles with them. Any questions or concerns about drugs should be recorded.

Before the examination, empty the bladder. Urine samples are usually collected in a small container at this time. The urine is tested for the presence of glucose (sugar), proteins and blood cells. For some blood tests, individuals can be told in advance not to eat or drink for 12 hours before the test.
Proposers usually remove all clothing and put on a hospital gown in bulk. sheet is to keep people covered and comfortable during the examination.
  


Maintenance
Once the review is completed, the suspect and an expert must examine the laboratory tests were ordered, why they were chosen, and how and with whom the results will be available. Health professionals should discuss recommendations for the treatment and visits. Special instructions should be written. It is also an opportunity for people to ask questions about their other health problems.
  


Risk
There is virtually no risk associated with physical examination. Complications of the process of physical examination are not uncommon. Sometimes useful information or data can be neglected. Most often, the results of laboratory tests related to compel doctors to reconsider re-check the person or body parts have already reviewed. In a sense, complications can arise from the results of physical examination. These generally lead to further research or medical treatment. They are really more beneficial than negative, as is often the beginning of the process of treatment and recovery.


Normal results
appropriate outcomes corresponds to a physical examination looking healthy and smooth functioning of the body. For example, appropriate reflexes will be present, no lumps or suspicious changes are found, and life will be normal.

Abnormal physical examination does not contain conclusions that indicate the presence of disease, illness or underlying condition. For example, the presence of lumps or changes, fever, muscle weakness or absence of signal, weak responses to light, arrhythmias, or swollen lymph nodes indicate health problems possible.

Senin, 06 September 2010

Functions and Benefits of Vitamin B12



Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex of all vitamins. Vitamin B12 is the generic name for a specific group of cobalt-containing corrinoids from biological activity in humans. What is interesting is the only known metabolite contains cobalt, which gives a water-soluble vitamin its red color. This group of corrinoids is also known as cobalamin. The principal cobalamins in humans and animals are hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, the latter two are active coenzyme forms. Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12, which is widely used clinically because of the availability and stability. Converted into active agents in the body.
 
In 1934, three researchers won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the exceptional properties of vitamin B12. It was found that the consumption of large quantities of raw liver, which contains large quantities of vitamin B12, can save the lives of patients with pernicious anemia previously incurable. This discovery allows you to save 10,000 people a year in the United States alone. Vitamin B12 was isolated from liver extract in 1948 and its structure was explained by seven years later.

Function
Vitamin B12 is essential for the formation of blood cells, nerves, and covers the various proteins. It is therefore essential to prevent certain forms of anemia and neurological disorders. He is also involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and is essential for growth. In humans, the functions of vitamin B12 mainly as a coenzyme in intermediary metabolism. Two metabolic processes depend on the Vitamin B12:
 
  1. The methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin
  2. Methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction of adenosylcobalamin
In methylcobalamin form of vitamin B12 is a cofactor for methionine synthase directly, the enzyme that converts homocysteine back to methionine. There is evidence that vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of folate polyglutamates (active coenzymes necessary for development of neural tissue) and the regeneration of folic acid during the formation of red blood cells.
 
Methylmalonyl CoA mutase converts 1-methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl-CoA (reaction important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates). Adenosylcobalamin is also a coenzyme in the ribonucleotide reduction (which provides blocks for the synthesis of DNA).
 
Food Sources
Vitamin B12 is produced exclusively by microbial synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Therefore, the protein products of animal origin are a source of vitamin B12 in food, especially meat organs (liver, kidneys). Other good sources are fish, eggs and dairy products. Food, hydroxo-, methyl-and 5'-deoxyadenosyl Cbl-Cbl are the mainstream. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12, except those from microbial contamination. The bacteria in the intestine synthesize vitamin B12, but not in normal conditions in the regions where absorption occurs.
 

Vitamin K and Its Benefits



Vitamin K, found in some vegetables, beef and chicken livers, even in ourselves. Yes, we have the opportunity of vitamin K - and we do, creating a third of what we need - by the bacteria in our intestines. In this article we will discuss what is vitamin K, which explains why it is important that you do not find that and much more. Here is a brief overview of what we cover.

Definition

First recognized by the Danish scientist, in 1929, Vitamin K is a huge benefit for the body. Not only helps blood clotting, vitamin K also helps build strong bones, contributing to a protein called osteocalcin It binds calcium, vitamin K, which means it can play a role in preventing osteoporosis. Learn more about this important vitamin to this page.

Foods that contain vitamin K

Some vitamin K is produced naturally in the body by bacteria, but it is our duty to contain vitamin K in our diet too. More foods containing vitamin K, including green leafy vegetables, spinach poor, broccoli, lettuce and beef, chicken, pork liver. Green tea is an excellent source of vitamin K. In this section you will learn which foods are the best source of vitamin K.

Vitamin k deficiency

Despite a healthy diet, vitamin K is sometimes down. liver disease or urinary bladder or gastrointestinal disease that interferes with the absorption of fat can cause a deficiency. So, the long-term antibiotic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Infants are born without the bacteria necessary to create vitamin K Discover what factors may contribute to a lack of vitamin K.

Vitamin K intake

As in the case of newborns, some or liver disease, gallbladder or gastrointestinal patients, supplementation with vitamin K is sometimes necessary. But how much and who needs it? In this section, we examine the reasons why children receive vitamin K right after birth and who else will look for vitamin K. Too much vitamin K is toxic, reportedly is the key.

Benefits of vitamin K
Vitamin K plays an important role in the body - blood clotting and help to help retain calcium, which helps prevent osteoporosis. However, its value as a vitamin was not always known.

The importance of a power factor of blood coagulation first recognized by the Danish scientist. In 1929, reported that chicks fed a diet lacking a specific dietary factor hemorrhage. Blood clots slowly to control the bleeding. There is a lack of vitamin K factor

People who have problems absorbing fat, so vitamin K, including those on long-term antibiotic treatment may need to take supplements of vitamin K. When the time is slow blood clotting, vitamin K is given before surgery to prevent excessive bleeding.

Because of the ability of vitamin K to assist in the production of osteocalcin, calcium helps keep bones, or prevention of osteoporosis.

Women who have heavy periods, sometimes obtain relief supplement the diet of vitamin K. Even if the level of this vitamin in the blood is within normal range, supplements to reduce excessive bleeding in some women.

Several small studies have also shown benefits for pregnant women. Small additional doses of 50 mg reduces the nausea often associated with the first trimester of pregnancy.

Vitamin K is in many foods. We will discuss foods that are best and how much you need in the next section.

Signs and Symptoms of Allergic

Another frequent cause of misinterpretation and dark circles and bags around the eyes, is in fact those caused by allergies and other allergic factors.
 
Commonly known as allergy "black eye and mimic the appearance of a black eye cause by the wrong person mad, those pesky pet can be a bit difficult to identify a few people and even harder to find the best action plan against it.
 
There are an infinite number of allergies that can contribute or add to the appearance of shadows caused by allergies, but in general can be found relate to sinus and nasal passages.
 
sinus problems and symptoms can lead to rapid development of bruising around the nose and eyes (notice how these sensitive and irritated when they have a cold for example) and the constant rubbing of the eyes, works to increase the domination angry and dark
 
Allergy treatment-related Dark Circle:
 
  1. Treating appropriate allergy medications is essential and if you notice more or draw a ring around the eye for the symptoms of allergies, get a professional diagnosis and sets the direction of it's best for you count on.
  2. Makeup and concealment techniques can help reduce and hide in the shadows this time, if you must go out, but you must stay home to rest and drink chicken soup with noodles stupid!
  3. Rubbing nose and eyes may be a worsening of the situation, caring and communication are not as active in the friction and itching to help reduce the problem of deteriorating.