Kamis, 02 September 2010

Denial - The Psychodynamic Theories of Sigmund Freud

Denial is a refusal to recognize the existence or severity of unpleasant realities external or internal thoughts and feelings.

                                                              figure via antipinoy

In psychology, denial is a concept derived from psychodynamic theories of Sigmund Freud. According to Freud, three mental dynamics, or motivating forces that influence human behavior: the id, ego and superego. Id contains basic survival instincts and what Freud considered that the two dominant human drives: sex and aggression. If D was the only influence on behavior, people are not just more fun, reduce pain and achieve instant gratification. The ego consists of logical and rational. It allows people to analyze the risks and benefits of realistic situations, to tolerate the pain of future profits, and to consider alternatives to a behavior-based ID movement. Superego consists of moral standards and is the basis of consciousness. Although the superego is essential for the sense of good and evil, there can be extreme, unrealistic ideas of what should and should not do.

These forces have different objectives (id, pleasure, ego, reality, superego, morality), and constantly strive for domination, as a result of internal conflicts. This conflict creates anxiety. I, who acts as an intermediary between the two extremes of the id and superego, attempts to reduce this fear by using defense mechanisms. defense mechanisms are indirect ways to treat and cope with fear, as he explains away problems or blame others for problems. Denial is one of many defense mechanisms. This involves ignoring or refusing to believe the unpleasant reality. defense mechanisms protecting mental health in traumatic situations, or in any situation that creates anxiety or conflict. But they do not resolve the situation of unrest and production, if misused, can lead to mental disorders. Although the identity model of Freud, ego and superego is not stressed by most psychologists today, defense mechanisms are still treated as potentially incorrect behavior, which can lead to disorders mentally.

Examples of Denial
Death is common during the refusal. When someone learns the sudden and unexpected death of a loved one, first, it will not be able to accept the reality of the loss. initial refusal to protect that person from shock and pain that often accompanies death. chronic or terminal illness to encourage refusal. People with these diseases may be thinking, "This is not so bad, I am, and refuse to make changes in lifestyle.

Refusal may also refer to internal thoughts and feelings. For example, some children learn that anger is bad in any situation. As adults, they experience feelings of anger they may deny their feelings of others. cultural norms and expectations may be encouraged to refuse to subjective experience. Men who belong to a culture with the greatest concept of masculinity can see fear as a sign of weakness and to deny the inner feelings of fear. The Chinese culture is designed to discourage the recognition of mental illness, which robs people of their symptoms of mental and physical symptoms that often develop instead.

Some personality disorders are generally characterized by denial more than others. For example, people with narcissistic personality disorder to deny information that suggests they are not perfect. Antisocial behavior is characterized by the refusal to harm others (eg, sex offenders or drug addicts).

Refusal to be issued on a large scale between the groups, cultures and even nations. Lucy Bregman gives an example of national denial of direct mortality in 1950: Students participated in exercises in which hidden under the desk in preparation for atomic attacks. Another example of refusal on a large scale is the recent discovery that some do the Holocaust of the Second World War took place.


Treatment of Denial
The refusal is treated differently in different types of therapy. In psychoanalytic therapy, the situation is regarded as an obstacle to progress that must eventually stand, and interpreted. Time is important, however. psychoanalytic therapists await customers seem emotional or, in some insight into how their problems they face. Humanistic and existential therapies, denial is considered in which clients understand their world. Not directly face denial, therapists help clients explore their world view and consider other ways of being. In cognitive behavioral therapy, refusal is not regarded as an important phenomenon. On the contrary, the refusal suggests that the entity has not learned the appropriate behaviors to cope with stressful situations. Therapists help people in the study of thoughts and behavior current and develop opportunities for strategic change.

Traditional treatment programs for drug and other dependencies to deny that the main theme. These programs teach that to overcome the addiction, I must admit that addiction to alcohol. Those who are unable to accept such labels are informed that they are in denial. Even if the labels are accepted, people are still considered a refusal, if you do not recognize the severity of their addiction. From this point of view, development can not be considered as persons in their employment, and denied. But there are many controversies in the field of substance abuse on the role of denial and how it should be treated. Traditional programs stress a direct confrontation. Other experts do not insist on the adoption of the label. They believe that the refusal must be worked through more subtle, empathic, focusing on the personal reasons for refusal and around trying to reinforce the desire to change. This subtle form termination for refusal is known as therapy improved motivation, and can be used with other types of disorders, as well.

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