Rabu, 08 September 2010

Techniques of Physical Examination


                                                           figure via depts.washington

The study is to evaluate the power to determine his state of health. Control techniques include palpation (feeling with hands and / or fingers), percussion (tapping fingers), auscultation (listening), and smell. A complete medical examination also includes gathering information about people, history and lifestyle, laboratory research and disease control. These elements constitute the data upon which to establish a diagnosis and a treatment plan is developed.


Target
Deadline for the annual survey has been replaced in most health care environments of periodic health examinations. The frequency with which it is based on factors such as age, sex, presence of risk factors for disease in the person of the test. Health professionals often use the guidelines that were developed by organizations such as the U.S. Preventive Task Force. Organizations like the American Cancer Society and American Heart Association, which supports detection and prevention of specific diseases, generally recommend testing more intensive and frequent, or to suggest that research into various organs.
Testing complete physical opportunities for health care professionals to obtain basic information on who can be useful in the future. They also allow health care providers to establish relationships before problems. Physical examination is the right time to answer questions and teach good health practices. Identifying and solving problems at an early stage can have beneficial effects of long-term results.
Everyone should have periodic physical examination. This occurs frequently (monthly at first) in infants and gradually reach a frequency of once a year for youth and adults.


Description
The complete study usually begins in the head and proceeds until the fingers. However, the exact mileage will vary depending on individual needs and preferences of the examiner has examined. The test takes on average about 30 minutes. The cost of testing depends on the charge for professional time and all the tests that are included in the price. Most health insurance plans for routine physical tests, including research.


Search
Before you ask the experts observe the person, the general appearance, general health and behavior. Measurements of height and weight are made. life, such as pulse, breathing rate, body temperature and blood pressure are recorded.
The suspect in a sitting position, after verification systems:
  • Skin. The exposed areas of skin are observed; size and shape of any change is noted.
  • Head. Hair, scalp, skull and face are examined.
  • Eyes. The external structures are observed. internal structures can be observed using an ophthalmoscope (instrument lights) in a dark room.
  • Ears. external control structures. otoscope instrument called light can be used for the internal control structure.
  • Nose and sinuses. external nose is examined. nasal mucosa and internal structures can be observed using a nasal speculum and penlight.
  • Mouth and throat. teeth lips, gums, palate, tongue and throat, are inspected.
  • Neck. The lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the thyroid gland is palpable.
  • Return. The spine and back muscles are palpable, and checked for tenderness. Upper back, where are the lungs, is palpable on the left and right and the stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds.
  • Breasts and armpits. women's breasts are inspected with the arms relaxed and grew. The men and women, the lymph nodes in the armpits are felt in the hands of an expert. If the person is still sitting, movement in the joints of the hands, arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, and you can check.



Even if the person is lying on the table test, the test includes:
  • Breathe. The breasts are palpated and control the masses.
  • Front chest and lungs. surface inspection with the fingers, using palpation and percussion. Stethoscope is used to listen to breath sounds internal.

The head should be slightly raised to examine:
  • Heart. Stethoscope is used to listen to heart rate and rhythm. The blood vessels of the neck are observed and palpable.

The suspect should be flat on the survey:
  • The abdomen. Light and deep palpation is used on the abdomen to feel the contours of the internal organs, including liver, spleen, kidneys and aorta, large vessels.
  • The rectum and anus. The person lying on the left side, outside areas are observed. The internal digital examination (using a gloved finger), is generally for people over 40 years. Among men, the prostate is palpable.
  • Genital warts. external genitalia are controlled and the region examined hernia. Among men, the scrotum and testes are palpable. In women, an investigation is in the basin through a viewing window and the sample Papanicolaou (Pap) test can be taken.
  • Feet. Laying flat, the legs are inspected for swelling, and pulses in the knees, thighs, feet and surrounded. Aine is the presence of palpable lymph nodes. Joints and muscles are observed.
  • Musculo-skeletal disorders. The position of the person, the straightness of the spine and adjust the legs and feet is noted.
  • The blood vessels. The presence of abnormally dilated veins (varicose), usually in the legs, is noted.

In addition to assessing individual alertness and mental capacity during the initial conversation, the control of the nervous system may include:
  • Neurological screen. The individual's ability to make a few steps, hop, and it is deeply bent knee is observed. Force grip is felt. Sitting in an upright position, the reflexes in the knees and feet can be tested with a small hammer. The sense of touch in hands and feet can be evaluated by testing reaction to pain and vibration.
  • 12-nerves in the head (skull) which are connected directly to the brain. Check the sense of smell and taste, muscle strength in the head, reflexes in the eye, facial movements, gag reflex, vision, hearing, and muscles of the jaw. muscle and overall coordination, and reaction to pain medications, such as pain, temperature and touch can also be evaluated.


Readiness Diagnostic
Each test should be comfortable and treated with respect by the research. As the study continues, the examiners should explain what they do and to share relevant findings. Use language appropriate to improve the efficiency of the suspect promotes better communication and, ultimately, the relationship between the subjects examined and the examiners.

Before coming to health care, registration dates and important facts about their medical history, and family members. There should be a complete list of all medications and their doses. This list should include counter preparations, vitamins and herbal supplements. Some people their medication bottles with them. Any questions or concerns about drugs should be recorded.

Before the examination, empty the bladder. Urine samples are usually collected in a small container at this time. The urine is tested for the presence of glucose (sugar), proteins and blood cells. For some blood tests, individuals can be told in advance not to eat or drink for 12 hours before the test.
Proposers usually remove all clothing and put on a hospital gown in bulk. sheet is to keep people covered and comfortable during the examination.
  


Maintenance
Once the review is completed, the suspect and an expert must examine the laboratory tests were ordered, why they were chosen, and how and with whom the results will be available. Health professionals should discuss recommendations for the treatment and visits. Special instructions should be written. It is also an opportunity for people to ask questions about their other health problems.
  


Risk
There is virtually no risk associated with physical examination. Complications of the process of physical examination are not uncommon. Sometimes useful information or data can be neglected. Most often, the results of laboratory tests related to compel doctors to reconsider re-check the person or body parts have already reviewed. In a sense, complications can arise from the results of physical examination. These generally lead to further research or medical treatment. They are really more beneficial than negative, as is often the beginning of the process of treatment and recovery.


Normal results
appropriate outcomes corresponds to a physical examination looking healthy and smooth functioning of the body. For example, appropriate reflexes will be present, no lumps or suspicious changes are found, and life will be normal.

Abnormal physical examination does not contain conclusions that indicate the presence of disease, illness or underlying condition. For example, the presence of lumps or changes, fever, muscle weakness or absence of signal, weak responses to light, arrhythmias, or swollen lymph nodes indicate health problems possible.

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